- Validate Mixing
- Cross-Contamination Testing
- Selenium in Formula Feeds
- Sterilization of Contaminated Water
“On the Use of Particulate Distributions for Determining Degree of Homogeneity in a Feed Mixture” – Letter and Article, Dr. David Bernotas, April 2012
This letter is in response to your request for an overview and assessment of general statistical methods for testing the level of homogeneity in a mixture of feed based on tracer particle distribution estimates. I have reviewed the literature you provided, particularly your 1976 paper “The Use of Microtracers in determining the uniformity of formula animal feeds” and the 2010 report produced by TNO Science and Industry.
Evaluation of Homogeneity in Feed by Method of Microtracers®, Olivera Djuragic, Jovanka Levic, Slavica Sredanovic, Ljubinko Levic, Archiva Zootechnica, 2009
The mixture homogeneity is an issue of serious concern in the course of adding insignificant amount of feed components in the mixture. Serveral defferent methods for determining animal feed homogeneity are used worldwide.
“Effects of Particle Size and Mixing Time on Uniformity and Segregation in Pig Diets”, N. Amornthewaphat, K.C. Behnke and J.D. Hancock, Kansas State University. Swine Day, 1998
Diet uniformity, as represented by the coefficient of variation (CV), improved as mixing time was increased from 15 to 120 seconds and(or) corn particle size was decreased from 1,200 to 400 μm Segregation occurred during free-fall, and the coarser particle sizes resulted in greater segregation than the finer particle sizes.
“Markers in Mixing Testing: Closer to Perfection”, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg and David Eisenberg, Feed Management, November 1992
IF a feed manufacturer mixes feed longer than necessary to achieve a practically “perfect” mix, he is wasting labor and energy and reducing the production capacity of the facility. On the other hand, if the mix of ingredients is incomplete, animal production and customer satisfaction may be adversely affected (Behnke 1991).
“Microtracers® F and Their Uses in Assuring the Quality of Mixed Formula Feeds”, David Eisenberg, Advances in Feed Technology (Germany), Spring 1992
For what purposes are Microtracers F used to assure the quality of mixed formula feed? They are used for at least the following purposes: to test for completeness of mix, to test for adequacy of batch to batch cleanout of feed manufacturing equipment, to code the presence (absence) of critical micro ingredients in feeds and to identify feed additives and feeds containing such additives as proprietary.
“How Well is Your Mixer Performing?”, Wicker and Poole, Degussa Corporation, Feed Management, November 1991
“Mixer Performance, Cross-Contamination Testing Examined”, Feedstuffs, March 29, 2004
Reacting to several crises, the European Commission published a January 2000 White Paper on Food Safety that outlined a new concept in farm-to-table legislation and listed 80 legal initiatives, many of which recast regulation to a new “precautionary” hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) approach.
“The Use of Colored Iron Particles in Determining Cross Contamination of Medicated Feeds at Feedmills and Feed Premix Plants”, David Eisenberg, Presented at AOAC Forum on “Methods for Analysis of Antibiotics and Drugs in Feeds”, Los Angeles, September 2002; Published in Zootechnica International, March 2003
The Use of Colored Iron Particles in Determining Cross Contamination of Medicated Feeds at Feedmills and Feed Premix Plants
“The Use of Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles (Microtracers®) in Testing the Presence and Uniformity of a Feed Ingredient (Vitamin E) in the Diet”, Large Animals Review, Bagliacci M., Paci G., Marzoni M. and Lisi E., University of Pisa, Italy, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 2002 (in Italian)
“Use of Microtracers® as a Reliable and Inexpensive Tool for Rapid Assessment of Microingredient Distribution in Diets for Feedlot Cattle: Molasses and Forage Level Effects”, Proceedings, Western Section, American Society for Animal Science, Vol. 51, 2000; Calderón, Ambrozio, Machado, Meléndrez, Pereira and Zinn; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Mexico, and University of California, Davis, June 2000
We have developed anew technique for the application of microtracer technology to the on-site assessment of microingredient uniformity in diets for feedlot cattle.
“The Use of Microtracers® F (Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles) in Coding the Presence of Coccidiostats in Poultry feeds: Practical Implications”, David Eisenberg, Zootechnica International, P 46-50, December 1998
In a 1993 article, Zootechnica reported on the potential toxicity of various coccidiostats and on their potential to lead to toxicity or illegal tissue residues in poultry meat.
“Effect of Mixing Uniformity on Broiler Chick Performance”, Poultry Science, McCoy, Behnke, Hancock, McEllhiney, March 1994
“The Use of Microtracers® in a Medicated Premix to Determine the Presence of Tiamulin in Final Feed”, Corrigan et. al, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1994
Microtracers® consisting of iron particles coloured with codified food dyes (Micro-Tracers Inc., San Francisco) were incorporated into a tiamulin (2%) premix.
“Relative Stability of Selenites and Selenates in Feed Premixes as a Function of Water Activity “, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg et al, Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 90, No. 2, March 2007, P 349-353
Sodium selenite is more hygroscopic than sodium selenate. It is, therefore, more likely to dissolve when dispersed in feeds of relatively high water activity. When dissolved, it may form selenious acid and disperse as a vapor.
“Selenium Addition to Feeds”, David Eisenberg, Zootechnica International, July/August 1993
Selenium added to rations as sodium selenite or sodium selenate. Selenium is an essential nutrient at 0.1 parts per million for almost all livestock species. Many studies have indicated the rate of growth and health of animals and poultry is improved when selenium is added to feeds at 0.3 parts per million. Clearly, selenium is a required feed additive but addition rates should be strictly controlled.