MICROTRACER® DESCRIPTIVE & TECHNICAL LITERATURE

A-1. Microtracers® F (Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles) – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracers® F (Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles) – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracers™ F (colored uniformly sized iron particles) are easily identifiable “harmless markers” used to assure the quality of mixed formula animal and poultry feeds. When formulated in vitamin, mineral or medicated premixes, a Microtracer™ serves to mark the presence of the premix in the finished feeds.

A-2. Microtracer® “Rotary Detector” Instruction Sheet For Using Magnetic Separator

Microtracer® “Rotary Detector” Instruction Sheet For Using Magnetic Separator

Micro-Tracers, Inc. fabricates the “Rotary Detector” cabinet and removable weight hopper from stainless steel. The unit is equipped with either a 110 or 220 volt electric motor. It is packed in a plastic carrying cases that can fit under a seat on an airplane.

A-3. Microtracer® F- Quantitative Particle Count Assays

Microtracer® F- Quantitative Particle Count Assays

Microtracers ™ F (colored uniformly sized iron particles) are easily retrievable “harmless markers” used to code the presence of vitamins, minerals and drugs in animal and poultry feeds. They are also used to measure the quality of mix of feeds and to locate and quantify “feed carryover” in feed manufacturing equipment.

A-4. Microtracer® F – The Use of Microtracers® to Determine Completeness of Mix

Microtracer® F – The Use of Microtracers® to Determine Completeness of Mix

The worldwide formula feed industry manufactures more than 300 million tons annually. Manufacturers waste labor, energy and capitol when they mix feeds longer than necessary to achieve a complete blend. Excess mixing may also cause degradation of vitamins and medications.

A-5. Microtracer® F – Testing for “Cross Contamination” in Medicated Feeds

Microtracer® F – Testing for “Cross Contamination” in Medicated Feeds

Please also refer to Literature Items “A-1” Quality Assurance With Microtracers F, “A-2” Microtracer “Rotary Detector”, “A-3” Microtracers F- Quantitative Assays, and “C-9” The Use of Microtracers F in Coding the Presence of Coccidiostats in Poultry Feeds: Practical Implications.

A-6. Microtracer® RF(“Colored Iron Powder”) – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracer® RF(“Colored Iron Powder”) – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracers® are easily identifiable “harmless markers” used to assure the quality of mixed formula animal and poultry feeds. When formulated in vitamin, mineral or medicated premixes, a Microtracer serves to mark the presence of the premix in the finished feeds. When assayed quantitatively, Microtracers can be used to document efficacy of mixing as well as adequacy of batch to batch “cleanout” of mixers and other feed manufacturing equipment.

A-7. Microtracer® F-Nickel-(Used in Animal & Fish Digestion Studies) – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracer® F-Nickel-(Used in Animal & Fish Digestion Studies) – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracer F-Ni (iron/nickel particles) is an easily identifiable “harmless marker” used to assure the quality of mixed formula feeds, especially feeds containing high levels of moisture (i.e. in excess of 15%).

A-8. “Microgrits” – Colored Uniformly Sized Corn Cob Grit Particles – For Use in Visually Coding Research Feeds

“Microgrits” – Colored Uniformly Sized Corn Cob Grit Particles – For Use in Visually Coding Research Feeds

Microgrits are used for research, to identify different feeds and track consumption of feeds by animals; and by industry, to code feeds as proprietary and as a value added service to customers (to identify a product quickly and visually).

A-9. Microtracer® RF-Lake – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracer® RF-Lake – Descriptive and Technical Literature

Microtracers® are easily identifiable “harmless markers” used to assure the quality of mixed formula animal and poultry feeds. When formulated in vitamin, mineral or medicated premixes, a Microtracer serves to mark the presence of the premix in the finished feeds.

MICROTRACER® USE IN VALIDATING MIXING

B-1. “On the Use of Particulate Distributions for Determining Degree of Homogeneity in a Feed Mixture” – Letter and Article, Dr. David Bernotas, April 2012

“On the Use of Particulate Distributions for Determining Degree of Homogeneity in a Feed Mixture” – Letter and Article, Dr. David Bernotas, April 2012

This letter is in response to your request for an overview and assessment of general statistical methods for testing the
level of homogeneity in a mixture of feed based on tracer particle distribution estimates. I have reviewed the literature
you provided, particularly your 1976 paper “The Use of Microtracers in determining the uniformity of formula animal
feeds” and the 2010 report produced by TNO Science and Industry.

B-2. Evaluation of Homogeneity in Feed by Method of Microtracers®, Olivera Djuragic, Jovanka Levic, Slavica Sredanovic, Ljubinko Levic, Archiva Zootechnica, 2009

Evaluation of Homogeneity in Feed by Method of Microtracers®, Olivera Djuragic, Jovanka Levic, Slavica Sredanovic, Ljubinko Levic, Archiva Zootechnica, 2009

The mixture homogeneity is an issue of serious concern in the course of adding insignificant amount of feed components in the mixture. Serveral defferent methods for determining animal feed homogeneity are used worldwide.

B-3. Press Release of American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, October 11, 2007: “Revised ASABE Standard Available on Testing of Animal Feed Mixing Equipment” references the use of colored iron particles and colored iron powder for these purposes

Press Release of American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, October 11, 2007: “Revised ASABE Standard Available on Testing of Animal Feed Mixing Equipment” references the use of colored iron particles and colored iron powder for these purposes

B-4. “Effects of Particle Size and Mixing Time on Uniformity and Segregation in Pig Diets”, N. Amornthewaphat, K.C. Behnke and J.D. Hancock, Kansas State University. Swine Day, 1998

“Effects of Particle Size and Mixing Time on Uniformity and Segregation in Pig Diets”, N. Amornthewaphat, K.C. Behnke and J.D. Hancock, Kansas State University. Swine Day, 1998

Diet uniformity, as represented by the coefficient of variation (CV), improved as mixing time was increased from 15 to 120 seconds and(or) corn particle size was decreased from 1,200 to 400 μm Segregation occurred during free-fall, and the coarser particle sizes resulted in greater segregation than the finer particle sizes.

B-5. “Mix with Confidence”, David Eisenberg, International Milling, June 1994

“Mix with Confidence”, David Eisenberg, International Milling, June 1994

The mid-1990s are bringing with them an increased interest from regulatory authorities in many countries in assuring medicated feeds are mixed completely and that all microingredients are added as formulated.

B-6. “Particle Size and Mixing Problems for Aquatic Feeds”, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg and David Eisenberg, Feed Manufacturing, Technology IV, AFIA, 1994

Particle Size and Mixing Problems for Aquatic Feeds”, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg and David Eisenberg, Feed Manufacturing, Technology IV, AFIA, 1994

B-7. “Markers in Mixing Testing: Closer to Perfection”, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg and David Eisenberg, Feed Management, November 1992

“Markers in Mixing Testing: Closer to Perfection”, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg and David Eisenberg, Feed Management, November 1992

IF a feed manufacturer mixes feed longer than necessary to achieve a practically “perfect” mix, he is wasting labor and energy and reducing the production capacity of the facility. On the other hand, if the mix of ingredients is incomplete, animal production and customer satisfaction may be adversely affected (Behnke 1991).

B-8. “Microtracers® F and Their Uses in Assuring the Quality of Mixed Formula Feeds”, David Eisenberg, Advances in Feed Technology (Germany), Spring 1992

“Microtracers® F and Their Uses in Assuring the Quality of Mixed Formula Feeds”, David Eisenberg, Advances in Feed Technology (Germany), Spring 1992

For what purposes are Microtracers F used to assure the quality of mixed formula feed? They are used for at least the following purposes: to test for completeness of mix, to test for adequacy of batch to batch cleanout of feed manufacturing equipment, to code the presence (absence) of critical micro ingredients in feeds and to identify feed additives and feeds containing such additives as proprietary.

B-9. “How Well is Your Mixer Performing?”, Wicker and Poole, Degussa Corporation, Feed Management, November 1991

“How Well is Your Mixer Performing?”, Wicker and Poole, Degussa Corporation, Feed Management, November 1991

B-10. “Comparison of Homogeneity Tests”, Buhler Brothers, Uzwil, Switzerland, Feed International, March 1984

“Comparison of Homogeneity Tests”, Buhler Brothers, Uzwil, Switzerland, Feed International, March 1984

B-11. “Criteria for Evaluating Feed Mixer Performance”, Pfost and Headley, Feedstuffs, KansasStateUniversity, 1966

“Criteria for Evaluating Feed Mixer Performance”, Pfost and Headley, Feedstuffs, KansasStateUniversity, 1966

PARTICULATE AND IRON POWDER MICROTRACERS® AND THEIR USES IN FORMULA FEEDS

C-1. “On the Cross Contamination Marks”, Special Report No. 67, Tecaliman, France, March 2010

“On the Cross Contamination Marks”, Special Report No. 67, Tecaliman, France, March 2010

C-2. GMP+ Certification Scheme for the Feed Sector, Checking Procedure for the Process Accuracy of Compound Feeds with Microtracers®, Holland, 2006

GMP+ Certification Scheme for the Feed Sector, Checking Procedure for the Process Accuracy of Compound Feeds with Microtracers®, Holland, 2006

C-3. “Validating Cross-Contamination Control”, Feed International, September 2006

“Validating Cross-Contamination Control”, Feed International, September 2006

Why is it important to validate cross contamination control procedures at feed mills and feed premix plants? The obvious answer is: Mad cow disease!

C-4. Measuring Cross-Contamination in Feed Manufacturing, Yanne Boloh with Clayton Gill

Measuring Cross-Contamination in Feed Manufacturing, Yanne Boloh with Clayton Gill

C-5. “Mixer Performance, Cross-Contamination Testing Examined”, Feedstuffs, March 29, 2004

“Mixer Performance, Cross-Contamination Testing Examined”, Feedstuffs, March 29, 2004

Reacting to several crises, the European Commission published a January 2000 White Paper on Food Safety that outlined a new concept in farm-to-table legislation and listed 80 legal initiatives, many of which recast regulation to a new “precautionary” hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) approach.

C-6. “The Use of Colored Iron Particles in Determining Cross Contamination of Medicated Feeds at Feedmills and Feed Premix Plants”, David Eisenberg, Presented at AOAC Forum on “Methods for Analysis of Antibiotics and Drugs in Feeds”, Los Angeles, September 2002; Published in Zootechnica International, March 2003

“The Use of Colored Iron Particles in Determining Cross Contamination of Medicated Feeds at Feedmills and Feed Premix Plants”, David Eisenberg, Presented at AOAC Forum on “Methods for Analysis of Antibiotics and Drugs in Feeds”, Los Angeles, September 2002; Published in Zootechnica International, March 2003

The Use of Colored Iron Particles in Determining Cross Contamination of Medicated Feeds at Feedmills and Feed Premix Plants

C-7. “The Use of Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles (Microtracers®) in Testing the Presence and Uniformity of a Feed Ingredient (Vitamin E) in the Diet”, Large Animals Review, Bagliacci M., Paci G., Marzoni M. and Lisi E., University of Pisa, Italy, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 2002 (in Italian)

“The Use of Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles (Microtracers®) in Testing the Presence and Uniformity of a Feed Ingredient (Vitamin E) in the Diet”, Large Animals Review, Bagliacci M., Paci G., Marzoni M. and Lisi E., University of Pisa, Italy, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 2002 (in Italian)

C-8. “Use of Microtracers® as a Reliable and Inexpensive Tool for Rapid Assessment of Microingredient Distribution in Diets for Feedlot Cattle: Molasses and Forage Level Effects”, Proceedings, Western Section, American Society for Animal Science, Vol. 51, 2000; Calderón, Ambrozio, Machado, Meléndrez, Pereira and Zinn; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Mexico, and University of California, Davis, June 2000

“Use of Microtracers® as a Reliable and Inexpensive Tool for Rapid Assessment of Microingredient Distribution in Diets for Feedlot Cattle: Molasses and Forage Level Effects”, Proceedings, Western Section, American Society for Animal Science, Vol. 51, 2000; Calderón, Ambrozio, Machado, Meléndrez, Pereira and Zinn; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Mexico, and University of California, Davis, June 2000

We have developed anew technique for the application of microtracer technology to the on-site assessment of microingredient uniformity in diets for feedlot cattle.

C-9. “The Use of Microtracers® F (Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles) in Coding the Presence of Coccidiostats in Poultry feeds: Practical Implications”, David Eisenberg, Zootechnica International, P 46-50, December 1998

“The Use of Microtracers® F (Colored Uniformly Sized Iron Particles) in Coding the Presence of Coccidiostats in Poultry feeds: Practical Implications”, David Eisenberg, Zootechnica International, P 46-50, December 1998

In a 1993 article, Zootechnica reported on the potential toxicity of various coccidiostats and on their potential to lead to toxicity or illegal tissue residues in poultry meat.

C-10. “Use of a Tracer to Detect Poultry Offal Meal in Compound Feed” Unpublished, Irish Department of Agriculture and Food, 1998

“Use of a Tracer to Detect Poultry Offal Meal in Compound Feed” Unpublished, Irish Department of Agriculture and Food, 1998

C-11. “Effect of Mixing Uniformity on Broiler Chick Performance”, Poultry Science, McCoy, Behnke, Hancock, McEllhiney, March 1994

“Effect of Mixing Uniformity on Broiler Chick Performance”, Poultry Science, McCoy, Behnke, Hancock, McEllhiney, March 1994

C-12. “The Use of Microtracers® in a Medicated Premix to Determine the Presence of Tiamulin in Final Feed”, Corrigan et. al, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1994

“The Use of Microtracers® in a Medicated Premix to Determine the Presence of Tiamulin in Final Feed”, Corrigan et. al, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1994

Microtracers® consisting of iron particles coloured with codified food dyes (Micro-Tracers Inc., San Francisco) were incorporated into a tiamulin (2%) premix.

C-13. ” Development of a Technique for Fish Feed Digestibility Estimations Using Microtracers®, Thesis of N. M. Kabir, University of Tasmania, Australia, December 1993

” Development of a Technique for Fish Feed Digestibility Estimations Using Microtracers®, Thesis of N. M. Kabir, University of Tasmania, Australia, December 1993

C-14. “Micro-Proportioning”, Robert McEllhiney, KansasStateUniversity, Feed International , March 1990

“Micro-Proportioning”, Robert McEllhiney, KansasStateUniversity, Feed International , March 1990

C-15. “Dilution in a Premix”, Robert McEllhiney, KansasStateUniversity, Feed International, July 1983

“Dilution in a Premix”, Robert McEllhiney, KansasStateUniversity, Feed International, July 1983

C-16. “Intermediate Drug Mixing”, Robert McElliney, KansasStateUniversity, Feed Management, June 1982

“Intermediate Drug Mixing”, Robert McElliney, KansasStateUniversity, Feed Management, June 1982

C-17. “Study of Constant Flow Device”, Gobbles, April 1983, Paul Waibel, University of Minnesota

“Study of Constant Flow Device”, Gobbles, April 1983, Paul Waibel, University of Minnesota

Bulk feed storage tanks and automated feed handling systems provide the turkey grower with an economical and convenient way to supply the flock with feed. Unfortunately, bin feed dynamics can sometimes slow down or stop the flow of feed from the storage tank to the feed handling system.

SELENIUM ADDITION TO FORMULA FEEDS

D-1. “Relative Stability of Selenites and Selenates in Feed Premixes as a Function of Water Activity “, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg et al, Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 90, No. 2, March 2007, P 349-353

“Relative Stability of Selenites and Selenates in Feed Premixes as a Function of Water Activity “, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg et al, Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 90, No. 2, March 2007, P 349-353

Sodium selenite is more hygroscopic than sodium selenate. It is, therefore, more likely to dissolve when dispersed in feeds of relatively high water activity. When dissolved, it may form selenious acid and disperse as a vapor.

D-2. “Practical Assay of Feed Premixes for Selenite Adsorbed on Reduced Iron”, Joele Hulen and Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg, Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 78, No. 3, 1995

“Practical Assay of Feed Premixes for Selenite Adsorbed on Reduced Iron”, Joele Hulen and Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg, Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 78, No. 3, 1995

D-3. “Selenium Addition to Feeds”, David Eisenberg, Zootechnica International, July/August 1993

“Selenium Addition to Feeds”, David Eisenberg, Zootechnica International, July/August 1993

Selenium added to rations as sodium selenite or sodium selenate. Selenium is an essential nutrient at 0.1 parts per million for almost all livestock species. Many studies have indicated the rate of growth and health of animals and poultry is improved when selenium is added to feeds at 0.3 parts per million. Clearly, selenium is a required feed additive but addition rates should be strictly controlled.

D-4. Microtracer® 4.5 % Selenium on Sand – Product Data Sheet and Technical Information

Microtracer® 4.5 % Selenium on Sand – Product Data Sheet and Technical Information

Microtracer ™ 4.5% Selenium on Sand (10% Sodium Selenite on Sand). A source of selenium for use in manufacturing feed premixes.

CHLORINE-FREE ELECTROCHEMICAL & PHOTOCHEMICAL STERILIZATION OF CONTAMINATED WATER

E-1. “Methods and means for the controlled chlorination of swimming pool water”, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg, 1949

“Methods and means for the controlled chlorination of swimming pool water”, Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg, 1949

E-2. “Electrochemical Chlorine-Free AC Disinfection of Water Contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteria”, N.N. Barashkov, D. Eisenberg, S. Eisenberg, G. Sh. Shegebaeva, I. S. Irgibaeva, and I.I. Barashkova; Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 306-311, 2010

“Electrochemical Chlorine-Free AC Disinfection of Water Contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteria”, N.N. Barashkov, D. Eisenberg, S. Eisenberg, G. Sh. Shegebaeva, I. S. Irgibaeva, and I.I. Barashkova; Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 306-311, 2010

E-3. “Combination of Chlorine-Free Electrolytic and Photochemical Methods for Sterilization of Contaminated Waters”, Dr. Nikolay Barashkov, EPA SBIR Program – Phase I, 2011

“Combination of Chlorine-Free Electrolytic and Photochemical Methods for Sterilization of Contaminated Waters”, Dr. Nikolay Barashkov, EPA SBIR Program – Phase I, 2011

E-4. “Chlorine-free Electrochemical Disinfection of Water Contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium and E.Coli B”, N.N.Barashkov, D.A.Eisenberg, and I.S. Irgibaeva, It’s All in the Water: Studies of Materials and Conditions in Fresh and Salt Water Bodies, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2012

“Chlorine-free Electrochemical Disinfection of Water Contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium and E.Coli B”, N.N.Barashkov, D.A.Eisenberg, and I.S. Irgibaeva, It’s All in the Water: Studies of Materials and Conditions in Fresh and Salt Water Bodies, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2012